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www.sun277.com_www.sun277.com-【sunbet官网】

文章来源:SEO    发布时间:2019-10-16 19:51:24  【字号:      】

www.sun277.com_www.sun277.com-【sunbet官网】Belt, Road to facilitate travel work#标题分割#Special:Chinawillofferfast-trackservicesin18locationsstartingfromSundaytobetterfacilitatetravelandtraderelatedtotheBeltandRoadInitiative,theStateImmigrationAdministrationsaid."Withthedeepeningdevelopmentoftheinitiative,exchangesbetweenChinaandcountriesorregionsinvolvedintheBRIcontinuetoincrease,"saidQuYunhai,deputydirectoroftheadministration.Since2013,thenumberofpeopleenteringandleavingthecountryhasincreasedbyanaverageof6.3percentannually,QusaidonSunday.SpecialchannelswerelaunchedonSundayat12airportsandsixlandcrossingstoprovideconvenientbordercheckservicesforpeopleinvolvedinconstructionprojectsorparticipatinginactivitiesrelatedtoBRIcountries,theadministrationsaid.TheairportsareinBeijing;Shanghai;Chongqing;XiamenandQuanzhou,Fujianprovince;GuangzhouandShenzhen,Guangdongprovince;Chengdu,Sichuanprovince;Kunming,Yunnanprovince;UrumqiintheXinjiangUygurautonomousregion;Zhengzhou,Henanprovince;andXi'an,Shaanxiprovince.ThelandcrossingsareManzhouliandEreenhotintheInnerMongoliaautonomousregion;KhorgosintheXinjiangUygurautonomousregion;FriendshipPassandDongxingintheGuangxiZhuangautonomousregion;andMohan,Yunnanprovince.XiangYongjun,headofthebordercheckdepartmentattheadministration,saidtheairportshavemanyinternationalairroutesandthelandcrossingsprovidepassageforpeopleandgoodstoneighboringcountries.ThemeasureswillmaketheseairportsandcrossingsbetterfacilitateexchangesandtradebetweenChinaandothercountries,Xiangsaid.ForeignersinvitedtoChinatoparticipateinactivitiesrelatedtotheBRIcanapplyforexpressvisas.ForforeignersparticipatinginBRI-relatedprojectswhoneedtostayinChina,documentprocessingtimeshavebeenshortenedfrom15tofiveworkingdaysfortheissuanceoftemporaryresidencypermits,includingforspousesandchildren,theadministrationsaid.ForforeigncrewmembersengagedinBRI-relatedmaritimetransport,iftheyneedtoapplyfortemporaryresidencycertificatesinChina,processingtimeswillbeshortenedfromseventothreeworkingdays,theadministrationsaid."Amidincreasinginternationalshippingactivitythereisagreatdemandformanpower.ManycrewmemberswillchangeshiftsinChinaandtakeothertransporttoleavethecountry,"saidJiaTongbin,anofficialwiththeadministrationinchargeofmanagingforeigners."Someportsarelocatedincitieswithoutinternationalflights,andforeigncrewmembersneedtoapplyforcertificatestostay,orgotoothercitiesorcountriesaftertheirshifts,"Jiasaid.Certificateswillbeissuedonthedayofapprovalforemergenciesofforeigncrewmembers,headded.PublicsecuritydepartmentswillalsoprovidespecialpassportservicesforChineseemployeesofcompaniesparticipatinginconstructionprojectsinBRIcountriesbyreducingprocessingtimes,theadministrationsaid.Belt, Road to facilitate travel work#标题分割#Special:Chinawillofferfast-trackservicesin18locationsstartingfromSundaytobetterfacilitatetravelandtraderelatedtotheBeltandRoadInitiative,theStateImmigrationAdministrationsaid."Withthedeepeningdevelopmentoftheinitiative,exchangesbetweenChinaandcountriesorregionsinvolvedintheBRIcontinuetoincrease,"saidQuYunhai,deputydirectoroftheadministration.Since2013,thenumberofpeopleenteringandleavingthecountryhasincreasedbyanaverageof6.3percentannually,QusaidonSunday.SpecialchannelswerelaunchedonSundayat12airportsandsixlandcrossingstoprovideconvenientbordercheckservicesforpeopleinvolvedinconstructionprojectsorparticipatinginactivitiesrelatedtoBRIcountries,theadministrationsaid.TheairportsareinBeijing;Shanghai;Chongqing;XiamenandQuanzhou,Fujianprovince;GuangzhouandShenzhen,Guangdongprovince;Chengdu,Sichuanprovince;Kunming,Yunnanprovince;UrumqiintheXinjiangUygurautonomousregion;Zhengzhou,Henanprovince;andXi'an,Shaanxiprovince.ThelandcrossingsareManzhouliandEreenhotintheInnerMongoliaautonomousregion;KhorgosintheXinjiangUygurautonomousregion;FriendshipPassandDongxingintheGuangxiZhuangautonomousregion;andMohan,Yunnanprovince.XiangYongjun,headofthebordercheckdepartmentattheadministration,saidtheairportshavemanyinternationalairroutesandthelandcrossingsprovidepassageforpeopleandgoodstoneighboringcountries.ThemeasureswillmaketheseairportsandcrossingsbetterfacilitateexchangesandtradebetweenChinaandothercountries,Xiangsaid.ForeignersinvitedtoChinatoparticipateinactivitiesrelatedtotheBRIcanapplyforexpressvisas.ForforeignersparticipatinginBRI-relatedprojectswhoneedtostayinChina,documentprocessingtimeshavebeenshortenedfrom15tofiveworkingdaysfortheissuanceoftemporaryresidencypermits,includingforspousesandchildren,theadministrationsaid.ForforeigncrewmembersengagedinBRI-relatedmaritimetransport,iftheyneedtoapplyfortemporaryresidencycertificatesinChina,processingtimeswillbeshortenedfromseventothreeworkingdays,theadministrationsaid."Amidincreasinginternationalshippingactivitythereisagreatdemandformanpower.ManycrewmemberswillchangeshiftsinChinaandtakeothertransporttoleavethecountry,"saidJiaTongbin,anofficialwiththeadministrationinchargeofmanagingforeigners."Someportsarelocatedincitieswithoutinternationalflights,andforeigncrewmembersneedtoapplyforcertificatestostay,orgotoothercitiesorcountriesaftertheirshifts,"Jiasaid.Certificateswillbeissuedonthedayofapprovalforemergenciesofforeigncrewmembers,headded.PublicsecuritydepartmentswillalsoprovidespecialpassportservicesforChineseemployeesofcompaniesparticipatinginconstructionprojectsinBRIcountriesbyreducingprocessingtimes,theadministrationsaid.Belt, Road to facilitate travel work#标题分割#Special:Chinawillofferfast-trackservicesin18locationsstartingfromSundaytobetterfacilitatetravelandtraderelatedtotheBeltandRoadInitiative,theStateImmigrationAdministrationsaid."Withthedeepeningdevelopmentoftheinitiative,exchangesbetweenChinaandcountriesorregionsinvolvedintheBRIcontinuetoincrease,"saidQuYunhai,deputydirectoroftheadministration.Since2013,thenumberofpeopleenteringandleavingthecountryhasincreasedbyanaverageof6.3percentannually,QusaidonSunday.SpecialchannelswerelaunchedonSundayat12airportsandsixlandcrossingstoprovideconvenientbordercheckservicesforpeopleinvolvedinconstructionprojectsorparticipatinginactivitiesrelatedtoBRIcountries,theadministrationsaid.TheairportsareinBeijing;Shanghai;Chongqing;XiamenandQuanzhou,Fujianprovince;GuangzhouandShenzhen,Guangdongprovince;Chengdu,Sichuanprovince;Kunming,Yunnanprovince;UrumqiintheXinjiangUygurautonomousregion;Zhengzhou,Henanprovince;andXi'an,Shaanxiprovince.ThelandcrossingsareManzhouliandEreenhotintheInnerMongoliaautonomousregion;KhorgosintheXinjiangUygurautonomousregion;FriendshipPassandDongxingintheGuangxiZhuangautonomousregion;andMohan,Yunnanprovince.XiangYongjun,headofthebordercheckdepartmentattheadministration,saidtheairportshavemanyinternationalairroutesandthelandcrossingsprovidepassageforpeopleandgoodstoneighboringcountries.ThemeasureswillmaketheseairportsandcrossingsbetterfacilitateexchangesandtradebetweenChinaandothercountries,Xiangsaid.ForeignersinvitedtoChinatoparticipateinactivitiesrelatedtotheBRIcanapplyforexpressvisas.ForforeignersparticipatinginBRI-relatedprojectswhoneedtostayinChina,documentprocessingtimeshavebeenshortenedfrom15tofiveworkingdaysfortheissuanceoftemporaryresidencypermits,includingforspousesandchildren,theadministrationsaid.ForforeigncrewmembersengagedinBRI-relatedmaritimetransport,iftheyneedtoapplyfortemporaryresidencycertificatesinChina,processingtimeswillbeshortenedfromseventothreeworkingdays,theadministrationsaid."Amidincreasinginternationalshippingactivitythereisagreatdemandformanpower.ManycrewmemberswillchangeshiftsinChinaandtakeothertransporttoleavethecountry,"saidJiaTongbin,anofficialwiththeadministrationinchargeofmanagingforeigners."Someportsarelocatedincitieswithoutinternationalflights,andforeigncrewmembersneedtoapplyforcertificatestostay,orgotoothercitiesorcountriesaftertheirshifts,"Jiasaid.Certificateswillbeissuedonthedayofapprovalforemergenciesofforeigncrewmembers,headded.PublicsecuritydepartmentswillalsoprovidespecialpassportservicesforChineseemployeesofcompaniesparticipatinginconstructionprojectsinBRIcountriesbyreducingprocessingtimes,theadministrationsaid.

Belt, Road to facilitate travel work#标题分割#Special:Chinawillofferfast-trackservicesin18locationsstartingfromSundaytobetterfacilitatetravelandtraderelatedtotheBeltandRoadInitiative,theStateImmigrationAdministrationsaid."Withthedeepeningdevelopmentoftheinitiative,exchangesbetweenChinaandcountriesorregionsinvolvedintheBRIcontinuetoincrease,"saidQuYunhai,deputydirectoroftheadministration.Since2013,thenumberofpeopleenteringandleavingthecountryhasincreasedbyanaverageof6.3percentannually,QusaidonSunday.SpecialchannelswerelaunchedonSundayat12airportsandsixlandcrossingstoprovideconvenientbordercheckservicesforpeopleinvolvedinconstructionprojectsorparticipatinginactivitiesrelatedtoBRIcountries,theadministrationsaid.TheairportsareinBeijing;Shanghai;Chongqing;XiamenandQuanzhou,Fujianprovince;GuangzhouandShenzhen,Guangdongprovince;Chengdu,Sichuanprovince;Kunming,Yunnanprovince;UrumqiintheXinjiangUygurautonomousregion;Zhengzhou,Henanprovince;andXi'an,Shaanxiprovince.ThelandcrossingsareManzhouliandEreenhotintheInnerMongoliaautonomousregion;KhorgosintheXinjiangUygurautonomousregion;FriendshipPassandDongxingintheGuangxiZhuangautonomousregion;andMohan,Yunnanprovince.XiangYongjun,headofthebordercheckdepartmentattheadministration,saidtheairportshavemanyinternationalairroutesandthelandcrossingsprovidepassageforpeopleandgoodstoneighboringcountries.ThemeasureswillmaketheseairportsandcrossingsbetterfacilitateexchangesandtradebetweenChinaandothercountries,Xiangsaid.ForeignersinvitedtoChinatoparticipateinactivitiesrelatedtotheBRIcanapplyforexpressvisas.ForforeignersparticipatinginBRI-relatedprojectswhoneedtostayinChina,documentprocessingtimeshavebeenshortenedfrom15tofiveworkingdaysfortheissuanceoftemporaryresidencypermits,includingforspousesandchildren,theadministrationsaid.ForforeigncrewmembersengagedinBRI-relatedmaritimetransport,iftheyneedtoapplyfortemporaryresidencycertificatesinChina,processingtimeswillbeshortenedfromseventothreeworkingdays,theadministrationsaid."Amidincreasinginternationalshippingactivitythereisagreatdemandformanpower.ManycrewmemberswillchangeshiftsinChinaandtakeothertransporttoleavethecountry,"saidJiaTongbin,anofficialwiththeadministrationinchargeofmanagingforeigners."Someportsarelocatedincitieswithoutinternationalflights,andforeigncrewmembersneedtoapplyforcertificatestostay,orgotoothercitiesorcountriesaftertheirshifts,"Jiasaid.Certificateswillbeissuedonthedayofapprovalforemergenciesofforeigncrewmembers,headded.PublicsecuritydepartmentswillalsoprovidespecialpassportservicesforChineseemployeesofcompaniesparticipatinginconstructionprojectsinBRIcountriesbyreducingprocessingtimes,theadministrationsaid.Belt, Road to facilitate travel work#标题分割#Special:Chinawillofferfast-trackservicesin18locationsstartingfromSundaytobetterfacilitatetravelandtraderelatedtotheBeltandRoadInitiative,theStateImmigrationAdministrationsaid."Withthedeepeningdevelopmentoftheinitiative,exchangesbetweenChinaandcountriesorregionsinvolvedintheBRIcontinuetoincrease,"saidQuYunhai,deputydirectoroftheadministration.Since2013,thenumberofpeopleenteringandleavingthecountryhasincreasedbyanaverageof6.3percentannually,QusaidonSunday.SpecialchannelswerelaunchedonSundayat12airportsandsixlandcrossingstoprovideconvenientbordercheckservicesforpeopleinvolvedinconstructionprojectsorparticipatinginactivitiesrelatedtoBRIcountries,theadministrationsaid.TheairportsareinBeijing;Shanghai;Chongqing;XiamenandQuanzhou,Fujianprovince;GuangzhouandShenzhen,Guangdongprovince;Chengdu,Sichuanprovince;Kunming,Yunnanprovince;UrumqiintheXinjiangUygurautonomousregion;Zhengzhou,Henanprovince;andXi'an,Shaanxiprovince.ThelandcrossingsareManzhouliandEreenhotintheInnerMongoliaautonomousregion;KhorgosintheXinjiangUygurautonomousregion;FriendshipPassandDongxingintheGuangxiZhuangautonomousregion;andMohan,Yunnanprovince.XiangYongjun,headofthebordercheckdepartmentattheadministration,saidtheairportshavemanyinternationalairroutesandthelandcrossingsprovidepassageforpeopleandgoodstoneighboringcountries.ThemeasureswillmaketheseairportsandcrossingsbetterfacilitateexchangesandtradebetweenChinaandothercountries,Xiangsaid.ForeignersinvitedtoChinatoparticipateinactivitiesrelatedtotheBRIcanapplyforexpressvisas.ForforeignersparticipatinginBRI-relatedprojectswhoneedtostayinChina,documentprocessingtimeshavebeenshortenedfrom15tofiveworkingdaysfortheissuanceoftemporaryresidencypermits,includingforspousesandchildren,theadministrationsaid.ForforeigncrewmembersengagedinBRI-relatedmaritimetransport,iftheyneedtoapplyfortemporaryresidencycertificatesinChina,processingtimeswillbeshortenedfromseventothreeworkingdays,theadministrationsaid."Amidincreasinginternationalshippingactivitythereisagreatdemandformanpower.ManycrewmemberswillchangeshiftsinChinaandtakeothertransporttoleavethecountry,"saidJiaTongbin,anofficialwiththeadministrationinchargeofmanagingforeigners."Someportsarelocatedincitieswithoutinternationalflights,andforeigncrewmembersneedtoapplyforcertificatestostay,orgotoothercitiesorcountriesaftertheirshifts,"Jiasaid.Certificateswillbeissuedonthedayofapprovalforemergenciesofforeigncrewmembers,headded.PublicsecuritydepartmentswillalsoprovidespecialpassportservicesforChineseemployeesofcompaniesparticipatinginconstructionprojectsinBRIcountriesbyreducingprocessingtimes,theadministrationsaid.Belt, Road to facilitate travel work#标题分割#Special:Chinawillofferfast-trackservicesin18locationsstartingfromSundaytobetterfacilitatetravelandtraderelatedtotheBeltandRoadInitiative,theStateImmigrationAdministrationsaid."Withthedeepeningdevelopmentoftheinitiative,exchangesbetweenChinaandcountriesorregionsinvolvedintheBRIcontinuetoincrease,"saidQuYunhai,deputydirectoroftheadministration.Since2013,thenumberofpeopleenteringandleavingthecountryhasincreasedbyanaverageof6.3percentannually,QusaidonSunday.SpecialchannelswerelaunchedonSundayat12airportsandsixlandcrossingstoprovideconvenientbordercheckservicesforpeopleinvolvedinconstructionprojectsorparticipatinginactivitiesrelatedtoBRIcountries,theadministrationsaid.TheairportsareinBeijing;Shanghai;Chongqing;XiamenandQuanzhou,Fujianprovince;GuangzhouandShenzhen,Guangdongprovince;Chengdu,Sichuanprovince;Kunming,Yunnanprovince;UrumqiintheXinjiangUygurautonomousregion;Zhengzhou,Henanprovince;andXi'an,Shaanxiprovince.ThelandcrossingsareManzhouliandEreenhotintheInnerMongoliaautonomousregion;KhorgosintheXinjiangUygurautonomousregion;FriendshipPassandDongxingintheGuangxiZhuangautonomousregion;andMohan,Yunnanprovince.XiangYongjun,headofthebordercheckdepartmentattheadministration,saidtheairportshavemanyinternationalairroutesandthelandcrossingsprovidepassageforpeopleandgoodstoneighboringcountries.ThemeasureswillmaketheseairportsandcrossingsbetterfacilitateexchangesandtradebetweenChinaandothercountries,Xiangsaid.ForeignersinvitedtoChinatoparticipateinactivitiesrelatedtotheBRIcanapplyforexpressvisas.ForforeignersparticipatinginBRI-relatedprojectswhoneedtostayinChina,documentprocessingtimeshavebeenshortenedfrom15tofiveworkingdaysfortheissuanceoftemporaryresidencypermits,includingforspousesandchildren,theadministrationsaid.ForforeigncrewmembersengagedinBRI-relatedmaritimetransport,iftheyneedtoapplyfortemporaryresidencycertificatesinChina,processingtimeswillbeshortenedfromseventothreeworkingdays,theadministrationsaid."Amidincreasinginternationalshippingactivitythereisagreatdemandformanpower.ManycrewmemberswillchangeshiftsinChinaandtakeothertransporttoleavethecountry,"saidJiaTongbin,anofficialwiththeadministrationinchargeofmanagingforeigners."Someportsarelocatedincitieswithoutinternationalflights,andforeigncrewmembersneedtoapplyforcertificatestostay,orgotoothercitiesorcountriesaftertheirshifts,"Jiasaid.Certificateswillbeissuedonthedayofapprovalforemergenciesofforeigncrewmembers,headded.PublicsecuritydepartmentswillalsoprovidespecialpassportservicesforChineseemployeesofcompaniesparticipatinginconstructionprojectsinBRIcountriesbyreducingprocessingtimes,theadministrationsaid.Belt, Road to facilitate travel work#标题分割#Special:Chinawillofferfast-trackservicesin18locationsstartingfromSundaytobetterfacilitatetravelandtraderelatedtotheBeltandRoadInitiative,theStateImmigrationAdministrationsaid."Withthedeepeningdevelopmentoftheinitiative,exchangesbetweenChinaandcountriesorregionsinvolvedintheBRIcontinuetoincrease,"saidQuYunhai,deputydirectoroftheadministration.Since2013,thenumberofpeopleenteringandleavingthecountryhasincreasedbyanaverageof6.3percentannually,QusaidonSunday.SpecialchannelswerelaunchedonSundayat12airportsandsixlandcrossingstoprovideconvenientbordercheckservicesforpeopleinvolvedinconstructionprojectsorparticipatinginactivitiesrelatedtoBRIcountries,theadministrationsaid.TheairportsareinBeijing;Shanghai;Chongqing;XiamenandQuanzhou,Fujianprovince;GuangzhouandShenzhen,Guangdongprovince;Chengdu,Sichuanprovince;Kunming,Yunnanprovince;UrumqiintheXinjiangUygurautonomousregion;Zhengzhou,Henanprovince;andXi'an,Shaanxiprovince.ThelandcrossingsareManzhouliandEreenhotintheInnerMongoliaautonomousregion;KhorgosintheXinjiangUygurautonomousregion;FriendshipPassandDongxingintheGuangxiZhuangautonomousregion;andMohan,Yunnanprovince.XiangYongjun,headofthebordercheckdepartmentattheadministration,saidtheairportshavemanyinternationalairroutesandthelandcrossingsprovidepassageforpeopleandgoodstoneighboringcountries.ThemeasureswillmaketheseairportsandcrossingsbetterfacilitateexchangesandtradebetweenChinaandothercountries,Xiangsaid.ForeignersinvitedtoChinatoparticipateinactivitiesrelatedtotheBRIcanapplyforexpressvisas.ForforeignersparticipatinginBRI-relatedprojectswhoneedtostayinChina,documentprocessingtimeshavebeenshortenedfrom15tofiveworkingdaysfortheissuanceoftemporaryresidencypermits,includingforspousesandchildren,theadministrationsaid.ForforeigncrewmembersengagedinBRI-relatedmaritimetransport,iftheyneedtoapplyfortemporaryresidencycertificatesinChina,processingtimeswillbeshortenedfromseventothreeworkingdays,theadministrationsaid."Amidincreasinginternationalshippingactivitythereisagreatdemandformanpower.ManycrewmemberswillchangeshiftsinChinaandtakeothertransporttoleavethecountry,"saidJiaTongbin,anofficialwiththeadministrationinchargeofmanagingforeigners."Someportsarelocatedincitieswithoutinternationalflights,andforeigncrewmembersneedtoapplyforcertificatestostay,orgotoothercitiesorcountriesaftertheirshifts,"Jiasaid.Certificateswillbeissuedonthedayofapprovalforemergenciesofforeigncrewmembers,headded.PublicsecuritydepartmentswillalsoprovidespecialpassportservicesforChineseemployeesofcompaniesparticipatinginconstructionprojectsinBRIcountriesbyreducingprocessingtimes,theadministrationsaid.

Belt, Road to facilitate travel work#标题分割#Special:Chinawillofferfast-trackservicesin18locationsstartingfromSundaytobetterfacilitatetravelandtraderelatedtotheBeltandRoadInitiative,theStateImmigrationAdministrationsaid."Withthedeepeningdevelopmentoftheinitiative,exchangesbetweenChinaandcountriesorregionsinvolvedintheBRIcontinuetoincrease,"saidQuYunhai,deputydirectoroftheadministration.Since2013,thenumberofpeopleenteringandleavingthecountryhasincreasedbyanaverageof6.3percentannually,QusaidonSunday.SpecialchannelswerelaunchedonSundayat12airportsandsixlandcrossingstoprovideconvenientbordercheckservicesforpeopleinvolvedinconstructionprojectsorparticipatinginactivitiesrelatedtoBRIcountries,theadministrationsaid.TheairportsareinBeijing;Shanghai;Chongqing;XiamenandQuanzhou,Fujianprovince;GuangzhouandShenzhen,Guangdongprovince;Chengdu,Sichuanprovince;Kunming,Yunnanprovince;UrumqiintheXinjiangUygurautonomousregion;Zhengzhou,Henanprovince;andXi'an,Shaanxiprovince.ThelandcrossingsareManzhouliandEreenhotintheInnerMongoliaautonomousregion;KhorgosintheXinjiangUygurautonomousregion;FriendshipPassandDongxingintheGuangxiZhuangautonomousregion;andMohan,Yunnanprovince.XiangYongjun,headofthebordercheckdepartmentattheadministration,saidtheairportshavemanyinternationalairroutesandthelandcrossingsprovidepassageforpeopleandgoodstoneighboringcountries.ThemeasureswillmaketheseairportsandcrossingsbetterfacilitateexchangesandtradebetweenChinaandothercountries,Xiangsaid.ForeignersinvitedtoChinatoparticipateinactivitiesrelatedtotheBRIcanapplyforexpressvisas.ForforeignersparticipatinginBRI-relatedprojectswhoneedtostayinChina,documentprocessingtimeshavebeenshortenedfrom15tofiveworkingdaysfortheissuanceoftemporaryresidencypermits,includingforspousesandchildren,theadministrationsaid.ForforeigncrewmembersengagedinBRI-relatedmaritimetransport,iftheyneedtoapplyfortemporaryresidencycertificatesinChina,processingtimeswillbeshortenedfromseventothreeworkingdays,theadministrationsaid."Amidincreasinginternationalshippingactivitythereisagreatdemandformanpower.ManycrewmemberswillchangeshiftsinChinaandtakeothertransporttoleavethecountry,"saidJiaTongbin,anofficialwiththeadministrationinchargeofmanagingforeigners."Someportsarelocatedincitieswithoutinternationalflights,andforeigncrewmembersneedtoapplyforcertificatestostay,orgotoothercitiesorcountriesaftertheirshifts,"Jiasaid.Certificateswillbeissuedonthedayofapprovalforemergenciesofforeigncrewmembers,headded.PublicsecuritydepartmentswillalsoprovidespecialpassportservicesforChineseemployeesofcompaniesparticipatinginconstructionprojectsinBRIcountriesbyreducingprocessingtimes,theadministrationsaid.Belt, Road to facilitate travel work#标题分割#Special:Chinawillofferfast-trackservicesin18locationsstartingfromSundaytobetterfacilitatetravelandtraderelatedtotheBeltandRoadInitiative,theStateImmigrationAdministrationsaid."Withthedeepeningdevelopmentoftheinitiative,exchangesbetweenChinaandcountriesorregionsinvolvedintheBRIcontinuetoincrease,"saidQuYunhai,deputydirectoroftheadministration.Since2013,thenumberofpeopleenteringandleavingthecountryhasincreasedbyanaverageof6.3percentannually,QusaidonSunday.SpecialchannelswerelaunchedonSundayat12airportsandsixlandcrossingstoprovideconvenientbordercheckservicesforpeopleinvolvedinconstructionprojectsorparticipatinginactivitiesrelatedtoBRIcountries,theadministrationsaid.TheairportsareinBeijing;Shanghai;Chongqing;XiamenandQuanzhou,Fujianprovince;GuangzhouandShenzhen,Guangdongprovince;Chengdu,Sichuanprovince;Kunming,Yunnanprovince;UrumqiintheXinjiangUygurautonomousregion;Zhengzhou,Henanprovince;andXi'an,Shaanxiprovince.ThelandcrossingsareManzhouliandEreenhotintheInnerMongoliaautonomousregion;KhorgosintheXinjiangUygurautonomousregion;FriendshipPassandDongxingintheGuangxiZhuangautonomousregion;andMohan,Yunnanprovince.XiangYongjun,headofthebordercheckdepartmentattheadministration,saidtheairportshavemanyinternationalairroutesandthelandcrossingsprovidepassageforpeopleandgoodstoneighboringcountries.ThemeasureswillmaketheseairportsandcrossingsbetterfacilitateexchangesandtradebetweenChinaandothercountries,Xiangsaid.ForeignersinvitedtoChinatoparticipateinactivitiesrelatedtotheBRIcanapplyforexpressvisas.ForforeignersparticipatinginBRI-relatedprojectswhoneedtostayinChina,documentprocessingtimeshavebeenshortenedfrom15tofiveworkingdaysfortheissuanceoftemporaryresidencypermits,includingforspousesandchildren,theadministrationsaid.ForforeigncrewmembersengagedinBRI-relatedmaritimetransport,iftheyneedtoapplyfortemporaryresidencycertificatesinChina,processingtimeswillbeshortenedfromseventothreeworkingdays,theadministrationsaid."Amidincreasinginternationalshippingactivitythereisagreatdemandformanpower.ManycrewmemberswillchangeshiftsinChinaandtakeothertransporttoleavethecountry,"saidJiaTongbin,anofficialwiththeadministrationinchargeofmanagingforeigners."Someportsarelocatedincitieswithoutinternationalflights,andforeigncrewmembersneedtoapplyforcertificatestostay,orgotoothercitiesorcountriesaftertheirshifts,"Jiasaid.Certificateswillbeissuedonthedayofapprovalforemergenciesofforeigncrewmembers,headded.PublicsecuritydepartmentswillalsoprovidespecialpassportservicesforChineseemployeesofcompaniesparticipatinginconstructionprojectsinBRIcountriesbyreducingprocessingtimes,theadministrationsaid.Belt, Road to facilitate travel work#标题分割#Special:Chinawillofferfast-trackservicesin18locationsstartingfromSundaytobetterfacilitatetravelandtraderelatedtotheBeltandRoadInitiative,theStateImmigrationAdministrationsaid."Withthedeepeningdevelopmentoftheinitiative,exchangesbetweenChinaandcountriesorregionsinvolvedintheBRIcontinuetoincrease,"saidQuYunhai,deputydirectoroftheadministration.Since2013,thenumberofpeopleenteringandleavingthecountryhasincreasedbyanaverageof6.3percentannually,QusaidonSunday.SpecialchannelswerelaunchedonSundayat12airportsandsixlandcrossingstoprovideconvenientbordercheckservicesforpeopleinvolvedinconstructionprojectsorparticipatinginactivitiesrelatedtoBRIcountries,theadministrationsaid.TheairportsareinBeijing;Shanghai;Chongqing;XiamenandQuanzhou,Fujianprovince;GuangzhouandShenzhen,Guangdongprovince;Chengdu,Sichuanprovince;Kunming,Yunnanprovince;UrumqiintheXinjiangUygurautonomousregion;Zhengzhou,Henanprovince;andXi'an,Shaanxiprovince.ThelandcrossingsareManzhouliandEreenhotintheInnerMongoliaautonomousregion;KhorgosintheXinjiangUygurautonomousregion;FriendshipPassandDongxingintheGuangxiZhuangautonomousregion;andMohan,Yunnanprovince.XiangYongjun,headofthebordercheckdepartmentattheadministration,saidtheairportshavemanyinternationalairroutesandthelandcrossingsprovidepassageforpeopleandgoodstoneighboringcountries.ThemeasureswillmaketheseairportsandcrossingsbetterfacilitateexchangesandtradebetweenChinaandothercountries,Xiangsaid.ForeignersinvitedtoChinatoparticipateinactivitiesrelatedtotheBRIcanapplyforexpressvisas.ForforeignersparticipatinginBRI-relatedprojectswhoneedtostayinChina,documentprocessingtimeshavebeenshortenedfrom15tofiveworkingdaysfortheissuanceoftemporaryresidencypermits,includingforspousesandchildren,theadministrationsaid.ForforeigncrewmembersengagedinBRI-relatedmaritimetransport,iftheyneedtoapplyfortemporaryresidencycertificatesinChina,processingtimeswillbeshortenedfromseventothreeworkingdays,theadministrationsaid."Amidincreasinginternationalshippingactivitythereisagreatdemandformanpower.ManycrewmemberswillchangeshiftsinChinaandtakeothertransporttoleavethecountry,"saidJiaTongbin,anofficialwiththeadministrationinchargeofmanagingforeigners."Someportsarelocatedincitieswithoutinternationalflights,andforeigncrewmembersneedtoapplyforcertificatestostay,orgotoothercitiesorcountriesaftertheirshifts,"Jiasaid.Certificateswillbeissuedonthedayofapprovalforemergenciesofforeigncrewmembers,headded.PublicsecuritydepartmentswillalsoprovidespecialpassportservicesforChineseemployeesofcompaniesparticipatinginconstructionprojectsinBRIcountriesbyreducingprocessingtimes,theadministrationsaid.

Belt, Road to facilitate travel work#标题分割#Special:Chinawillofferfast-trackservicesin18locationsstartingfromSundaytobetterfacilitatetravelandtraderelatedtotheBeltandRoadInitiative,theStateImmigrationAdministrationsaid."Withthedeepeningdevelopmentoftheinitiative,exchangesbetweenChinaandcountriesorregionsinvolvedintheBRIcontinuetoincrease,"saidQuYunhai,deputydirectoroftheadministration.Since2013,thenumberofpeopleenteringandleavingthecountryhasincreasedbyanaverageof6.3percentannually,QusaidonSunday.SpecialchannelswerelaunchedonSundayat12airportsandsixlandcrossingstoprovideconvenientbordercheckservicesforpeopleinvolvedinconstructionprojectsorparticipatinginactivitiesrelatedtoBRIcountries,theadministrationsaid.TheairportsareinBeijing;Shanghai;Chongqing;XiamenandQuanzhou,Fujianprovince;GuangzhouandShenzhen,Guangdongprovince;Chengdu,Sichuanprovince;Kunming,Yunnanprovince;UrumqiintheXinjiangUygurautonomousregion;Zhengzhou,Henanprovince;andXi'an,Shaanxiprovince.ThelandcrossingsareManzhouliandEreenhotintheInnerMongoliaautonomousregion;KhorgosintheXinjiangUygurautonomousregion;FriendshipPassandDongxingintheGuangxiZhuangautonomousregion;andMohan,Yunnanprovince.XiangYongjun,headofthebordercheckdepartmentattheadministration,saidtheairportshavemanyinternationalairroutesandthelandcrossingsprovidepassageforpeopleandgoodstoneighboringcountries.ThemeasureswillmaketheseairportsandcrossingsbetterfacilitateexchangesandtradebetweenChinaandothercountries,Xiangsaid.ForeignersinvitedtoChinatoparticipateinactivitiesrelatedtotheBRIcanapplyforexpressvisas.ForforeignersparticipatinginBRI-relatedprojectswhoneedtostayinChina,documentprocessingtimeshavebeenshortenedfrom15tofiveworkingdaysfortheissuanceoftemporaryresidencypermits,includingforspousesandchildren,theadministrationsaid.ForforeigncrewmembersengagedinBRI-relatedmaritimetransport,iftheyneedtoapplyfortemporaryresidencycertificatesinChina,processingtimeswillbeshortenedfromseventothreeworkingdays,theadministrationsaid."Amidincreasinginternationalshippingactivitythereisagreatdemandformanpower.ManycrewmemberswillchangeshiftsinChinaandtakeothertransporttoleavethecountry,"saidJiaTongbin,anofficialwiththeadministrationinchargeofmanagingforeigners."Someportsarelocatedincitieswithoutinternationalflights,andforeigncrewmembersneedtoapplyforcertificatestostay,orgotoothercitiesorcountriesaftertheirshifts,"Jiasaid.Certificateswillbeissuedonthedayofapprovalforemergenciesofforeigncrewmembers,headded.PublicsecuritydepartmentswillalsoprovidespecialpassportservicesforChineseemployeesofcompaniesparticipatinginconstructionprojectsinBRIcountriesbyreducingprocessingtimes,theadministrationsaid.Belt, Road to facilitate travel work#标题分割#Special:Chinawillofferfast-trackservicesin18locationsstartingfromSundaytobetterfacilitatetravelandtraderelatedtotheBeltandRoadInitiative,theStateImmigrationAdministrationsaid."Withthedeepeningdevelopmentoftheinitiative,exchangesbetweenChinaandcountriesorregionsinvolvedintheBRIcontinuetoincrease,"saidQuYunhai,deputydirectoroftheadministration.Since2013,thenumberofpeopleenteringandleavingthecountryhasincreasedbyanaverageof6.3percentannually,QusaidonSunday.SpecialchannelswerelaunchedonSundayat12airportsandsixlandcrossingstoprovideconvenientbordercheckservicesforpeopleinvolvedinconstructionprojectsorparticipatinginactivitiesrelatedtoBRIcountries,theadministrationsaid.TheairportsareinBeijing;Shanghai;Chongqing;XiamenandQuanzhou,Fujianprovince;GuangzhouandShenzhen,Guangdongprovince;Chengdu,Sichuanprovince;Kunming,Yunnanprovince;UrumqiintheXinjiangUygurautonomousregion;Zhengzhou,Henanprovince;andXi'an,Shaanxiprovince.ThelandcrossingsareManzhouliandEreenhotintheInnerMongoliaautonomousregion;KhorgosintheXinjiangUygurautonomousregion;FriendshipPassandDongxingintheGuangxiZhuangautonomousregion;andMohan,Yunnanprovince.XiangYongjun,headofthebordercheckdepartmentattheadministration,saidtheairportshavemanyinternationalairroutesandthelandcrossingsprovidepassageforpeopleandgoodstoneighboringcountries.ThemeasureswillmaketheseairportsandcrossingsbetterfacilitateexchangesandtradebetweenChinaandothercountries,Xiangsaid.ForeignersinvitedtoChinatoparticipateinactivitiesrelatedtotheBRIcanapplyforexpressvisas.ForforeignersparticipatinginBRI-relatedprojectswhoneedtostayinChina,documentprocessingtimeshavebeenshortenedfrom15tofiveworkingdaysfortheissuanceoftemporaryresidencypermits,includingforspousesandchildren,theadministrationsaid.ForforeigncrewmembersengagedinBRI-relatedmaritimetransport,iftheyneedtoapplyfortemporaryresidencycertificatesinChina,processingtimeswillbeshortenedfromseventothreeworkingdays,theadministrationsaid."Amidincreasinginternationalshippingactivitythereisagreatdemandformanpower.ManycrewmemberswillchangeshiftsinChinaandtakeothertransporttoleavethecountry,"saidJiaTongbin,anofficialwiththeadministrationinchargeofmanagingforeigners."Someportsarelocatedincitieswithoutinternationalflights,andforeigncrewmembersneedtoapplyforcertificatestostay,orgotoothercitiesorcountriesaftertheirshifts,"Jiasaid.Certificateswillbeissuedonthedayofapprovalforemergenciesofforeigncrewmembers,headded.PublicsecuritydepartmentswillalsoprovidespecialpassportservicesforChineseemployeesofcompaniesparticipatinginconstructionprojectsinBRIcountriesbyreducingprocessingtimes,theadministrationsaid.Belt, Road to facilitate travel work#标题分割#Special:Chinawillofferfast-trackservicesin18locationsstartingfromSundaytobetterfacilitatetravelandtraderelatedtotheBeltandRoadInitiative,theStateImmigrationAdministrationsaid."Withthedeepeningdevelopmentoftheinitiative,exchangesbetweenChinaandcountriesorregionsinvolvedintheBRIcontinuetoincrease,"saidQuYunhai,deputydirectoroftheadministration.Since2013,thenumberofpeopleenteringandleavingthecountryhasincreasedbyanaverageof6.3percentannually,QusaidonSunday.SpecialchannelswerelaunchedonSundayat12airportsandsixlandcrossingstoprovideconvenientbordercheckservicesforpeopleinvolvedinconstructionprojectsorparticipatinginactivitiesrelatedtoBRIcountries,theadministrationsaid.TheairportsareinBeijing;Shanghai;Chongqing;XiamenandQuanzhou,Fujianprovince;GuangzhouandShenzhen,Guangdongprovince;Chengdu,Sichuanprovince;Kunming,Yunnanprovince;UrumqiintheXinjiangUygurautonomousregion;Zhengzhou,Henanprovince;andXi'an,Shaanxiprovince.ThelandcrossingsareManzhouliandEreenhotintheInnerMongoliaautonomousregion;KhorgosintheXinjiangUygurautonomousregion;FriendshipPassandDongxingintheGuangxiZhuangautonomousregion;andMohan,Yunnanprovince.XiangYongjun,headofthebordercheckdepartmentattheadministration,saidtheairportshavemanyinternationalairroutesandthelandcrossingsprovidepassageforpeopleandgoodstoneighboringcountries.ThemeasureswillmaketheseairportsandcrossingsbetterfacilitateexchangesandtradebetweenChinaandothercountries,Xiangsaid.ForeignersinvitedtoChinatoparticipateinactivitiesrelatedtotheBRIcanapplyforexpressvisas.ForforeignersparticipatinginBRI-relatedprojectswhoneedtostayinChina,documentprocessingtimeshavebeenshortenedfrom15tofiveworkingdaysfortheissuanceoftemporaryresidencypermits,includingforspousesandchildren,theadministrationsaid.ForforeigncrewmembersengagedinBRI-relatedmaritimetransport,iftheyneedtoapplyfortemporaryresidencycertificatesinChina,processingtimeswillbeshortenedfromseventothreeworkingdays,theadministrationsaid."Amidincreasinginternationalshippingactivitythereisagreatdemandformanpower.ManycrewmemberswillchangeshiftsinChinaandtakeothertransporttoleavethecountry,"saidJiaTongbin,anofficialwiththeadministrationinchargeofmanagingforeigners."Someportsarelocatedincitieswithoutinternationalflights,andforeigncrewmembersneedtoapplyforcertificatestostay,orgotoothercitiesorcountriesaftertheirshifts,"Jiasaid.Certificateswillbeissuedonthedayofapprovalforemergenciesofforeigncrewmembers,headded.PublicsecuritydepartmentswillalsoprovidespecialpassportservicesforChineseemployeesofcompaniesparticipatinginconstructionprojectsinBRIcountriesbyreducingprocessingtimes,theadministrationsaid.

拦截洲际导弹?实战还远着呢 成功率不到一半#标题分割#  视觉中国  近日,美军从范登堡空军基地发射了一枚拦截导弹,目标是一枚从太平洋马绍尔群岛夸贾林环礁试验场发射的模拟洲际弹道导弹。拦截导弹进入外层空间后,释放出“外大气层杀伤飞行器”,在太平洋上空摧毁了来袭目标。这是美军首次进行洲际弹道导弹拦截测试。  科技日报记者了解到,美国此次测试的陆基中段反导(GMD)系统,属于美国反导体系中的核心部分,它来自于美国原来的国家导弹防御(NMD)系统。美国反导体系还有其他三个部分,一个是海基中段反导(SMD)系统,即大名鼎鼎的舰载“宙斯盾”系统,另外就是“萨德”末段高空系统和“爱国者-3”末段低空系统。此次成功拦截洲际弹道导弹,预示着GMD技术有了新的提升,可以拦截所有射程的弹道导弹。  国防科技大学国家安全与军事战略研究中心王群教授对此表示:“在飞行试验阶段,美军GMD曾做过一次拦截洲际弹道导弹的测试,因此准确地说,这次应该是它自2004年实战部署以来,所进行的第一次洲际弹道导弹的拦截测试。试验的成功,表明GMD防御洲际弹道导弹已不再是纸上谈兵,对世界军事平衡和安全局势都将有一定影响。”  陆基中段拦截难度大,成功率不足50%  谈陆基中段反导系统,必须先了解洲际弹道导弹飞行的三个过程:初始段,即导弹发射后向大气层外爬升的有动力阶段;中段,即导弹重返大气层前的自由飞行阶段;末段,即导弹再入大气层到落地的阶段。中段反导拦截,就是说导弹在大气层外飞行时对其拦截。在该段拦截有一定优势,如弹道最长、平稳固定、能精确预测,拦截阵地设置要求低,提供的拦截时间长,拦截后附带损伤小等。  然而,陆基中段反导并不简单,需要天基、地基、海基等多个侦察预警平台对弹道导弹的接力探测与跟踪。同时,还需要有大推力的拦截导弹高速飞向太空,以动能撞击的方式迎头拦截,这就像是“用子弹打子弹”。  美国反导系统建设基本采取“边部署、边研究、边试验、边提高”的策略,即部署后通过不断研究、改进和试验,提升反导系统的性能。  “1999年10月以来,GMD一直在进行拦截试验,至今共进行了19次,美国对外宣布成功10次。”王群介绍,“可以说,在美国目前实战部署的4种反导系统中,它投资花费最多,400多亿美元,但拦截成功率却最低,而且此前的18次拦截测试,大都以速度较慢的中程弹道导弹为目标。就是这些成功的试验中,据美国媒体透露有些也只能算是部分成功,所以即使按美军的标准,GMD的拦截成功率也不到50%。”  “特别是2010年到2013年,连续3次反导拦截试验均告失败。这与海基‘宙斯盾’系统相比,简直是天壤之别。要知道2002年至2014年,后者35次拦截试验29次都成功。因此,GMD的连续失败,美国国内舆论几乎是一边倒的质疑声浪,政治压力巨大,让它灰头土脸、挺不起腰板,同时国际影响也不好,威慑力下降。”王群说。  近几年,美军顶着压力又进行了一系列的改进。2014年6月22日,GMD成功拦截了太平洋上空一枚“来袭”的远程弹道导弹。这是它2008年以来首次成功实施拦截,一扫连续失败的阴霾。  时隔3年后,美军再次成功进行了陆基中段反导系统试验,不过目标是洲际弹道导弹。  既能反导也能反卫,且能力更强  “弹道导弹的射程越远,它的弹道最高点就越高,速度也就越快。洲际弹道导弹的关机速度能达到20多个马赫,接近第一宇宙速度7.91千米/秒。这样高的速度,极大地压缩了实施预警、跟踪的时间,给洲际弹道导弹的拦截带来很大的难度。”王群指出,目前,美国GMD的拦截弹基本是由“民兵-2”洲际弹道导弹改进而来,其速度达到7千米/秒甚至更高,已逼近了洲际弹道导弹的最高速度,因此具备了拦截条件。  对于刚结束的史无前例的试验,王群表示:“此次模拟的洲际弹道导弹在性能上接近美国‘民兵-3’洲际弹道导弹,射程最大应该也能达到1万千米。‘民兵-3’是目前美国唯一的陆基洲际弹道导弹。GMD成功拦截洲际弹道导弹,表明了美军对它的改进是有效的。”  此次试验中,导弹先升入太空,之后释放“外大气层杀伤飞行器”,利用其动能摧毁目标。那么,“外大气层杀伤飞行器”是否意味着美国拥有了可打击外太空装备(如卫星)的另一种打击方式?  “陆基中段拦截弹的射高可达上千千米,理论上讲对付低轨卫星绰绰有余。而且,由于卫星是按照固定轨迹飞行,又缺乏规避和防御措施,打卫星比打导弹会更容易一些。”王群说,“事实上,美国‘宙斯盾’系统就不但能反导,而且能反卫,这也是美国更看好它的一个重要原因。早在2008年2月,美国就利用它击落了其一颗高度247千米的失控卫星。从性能上看,GMD的反卫能力应该更强。此次拦截试验成功后,不排除美国未来将对它进行反卫试验,让它实际上也具备反卫能力。”  虽打破战略平衡,但距离实战还很远  2016年我国首次公开了2010年、2013年两次反导试验的视频录像。2010年进行的试验是我国第一次陆基中段反导拦截技术试验,此举使中国成为当今世界除美国之外唯一掌握中段反导动能拦截技术的国家。  有专家分析,我国中段反导系统研究与应用当前尚处于起步阶段,基本只能进行技术验证试验。比如,中国还缺乏天基预警系统,反导试验时不得不用地基雷达模拟预警卫星获取导弹发射信号,体系方面缺项,无法进行实战模拟试验。  王群介绍,此次试验中,美国利用天基预警系统在洲际弹道导弹发射的瞬间就获得情报,这时受地球曲率限制,海基和陆基预警系统还不能发现来袭导弹。随后,天基预警系统将信息传递给预警和跟踪雷达,持续地对来袭导弹探测和跟踪,同时跟踪雷达引导拦截弹到达交战区,释放“外大气层杀伤飞行器”实现对来袭导弹的拦截。  “这套系统美国现在已经比较齐全,但包括我国和俄罗斯等国还远远达不到美国的水平,因此肯定会有危机感。换句话说,此次试验进一步打破了目前的核威慑和战略平衡。”王群说。  但是,王群也特别指出:“这也没有必要过分担心其威胁。这些年GMD的拦截试验,实际上并不是‘背靠背’进行的,基本都事先知道时间、地点等信息,而且‘来袭’导弹上往往带有信标,引导拦截弹找到它,这有‘作假’嫌疑,离实战环境相去甚远。况且,它拦截的还仅仅是单弹头,对分导式多弹头或有先进突防掩护措施的弹头,能否拦截还是未知数。因此,此次试验的意义更多的是在政治上,以威慑诸如朝鲜和伊朗这样的国家,但对俄罗斯、中国来说却是另一回事,毕竟它们洲际导弹不但数量多,且技术先进,突防手段强,更重要的是它们对付反导系统的‘矛’日益锋利。”拦截洲际导弹?实战还远着呢 成功率不到一半#标题分割#  视觉中国  近日,美军从范登堡空军基地发射了一枚拦截导弹,目标是一枚从太平洋马绍尔群岛夸贾林环礁试验场发射的模拟洲际弹道导弹。拦截导弹进入外层空间后,释放出“外大气层杀伤飞行器”,在太平洋上空摧毁了来袭目标。这是美军首次进行洲际弹道导弹拦截测试。  科技日报记者了解到,美国此次测试的陆基中段反导(GMD)系统,属于美国反导体系中的核心部分,它来自于美国原来的国家导弹防御(NMD)系统。美国反导体系还有其他三个部分,一个是海基中段反导(SMD)系统,即大名鼎鼎的舰载“宙斯盾”系统,另外就是“萨德”末段高空系统和“爱国者-3”末段低空系统。此次成功拦截洲际弹道导弹,预示着GMD技术有了新的提升,可以拦截所有射程的弹道导弹。  国防科技大学国家安全与军事战略研究中心王群教授对此表示:“在飞行试验阶段,美军GMD曾做过一次拦截洲际弹道导弹的测试,因此准确地说,这次应该是它自2004年实战部署以来,所进行的第一次洲际弹道导弹的拦截测试。试验的成功,表明GMD防御洲际弹道导弹已不再是纸上谈兵,对世界军事平衡和安全局势都将有一定影响。”  陆基中段拦截难度大,成功率不足50%  谈陆基中段反导系统,必须先了解洲际弹道导弹飞行的三个过程:初始段,即导弹发射后向大气层外爬升的有动力阶段;中段,即导弹重返大气层前的自由飞行阶段;末段,即导弹再入大气层到落地的阶段。中段反导拦截,就是说导弹在大气层外飞行时对其拦截。在该段拦截有一定优势,如弹道最长、平稳固定、能精确预测,拦截阵地设置要求低,提供的拦截时间长,拦截后附带损伤小等。  然而,陆基中段反导并不简单,需要天基、地基、海基等多个侦察预警平台对弹道导弹的接力探测与跟踪。同时,还需要有大推力的拦截导弹高速飞向太空,以动能撞击的方式迎头拦截,这就像是“用子弹打子弹”。  美国反导系统建设基本采取“边部署、边研究、边试验、边提高”的策略,即部署后通过不断研究、改进和试验,提升反导系统的性能。  “1999年10月以来,GMD一直在进行拦截试验,至今共进行了19次,美国对外宣布成功10次。”王群介绍,“可以说,在美国目前实战部署的4种反导系统中,它投资花费最多,400多亿美元,但拦截成功率却最低,而且此前的18次拦截测试,大都以速度较慢的中程弹道导弹为目标。就是这些成功的试验中,据美国媒体透露有些也只能算是部分成功,所以即使按美军的标准,GMD的拦截成功率也不到50%。”  “特别是2010年到2013年,连续3次反导拦截试验均告失败。这与海基‘宙斯盾’系统相比,简直是天壤之别。要知道2002年至2014年,后者35次拦截试验29次都成功。因此,GMD的连续失败,美国国内舆论几乎是一边倒的质疑声浪,政治压力巨大,让它灰头土脸、挺不起腰板,同时国际影响也不好,威慑力下降。”王群说。  近几年,美军顶着压力又进行了一系列的改进。2014年6月22日,GMD成功拦截了太平洋上空一枚“来袭”的远程弹道导弹。这是它2008年以来首次成功实施拦截,一扫连续失败的阴霾。  时隔3年后,美军再次成功进行了陆基中段反导系统试验,不过目标是洲际弹道导弹。  既能反导也能反卫,且能力更强  “弹道导弹的射程越远,它的弹道最高点就越高,速度也就越快。洲际弹道导弹的关机速度能达到20多个马赫,接近第一宇宙速度7.91千米/秒。这样高的速度,极大地压缩了实施预警、跟踪的时间,给洲际弹道导弹的拦截带来很大的难度。”王群指出,目前,美国GMD的拦截弹基本是由“民兵-2”洲际弹道导弹改进而来,其速度达到7千米/秒甚至更高,已逼近了洲际弹道导弹的最高速度,因此具备了拦截条件。  对于刚结束的史无前例的试验,王群表示:“此次模拟的洲际弹道导弹在性能上接近美国‘民兵-3’洲际弹道导弹,射程最大应该也能达到1万千米。‘民兵-3’是目前美国唯一的陆基洲际弹道导弹。GMD成功拦截洲际弹道导弹,表明了美军对它的改进是有效的。”  此次试验中,导弹先升入太空,之后释放“外大气层杀伤飞行器”,利用其动能摧毁目标。那么,“外大气层杀伤飞行器”是否意味着美国拥有了可打击外太空装备(如卫星)的另一种打击方式?  “陆基中段拦截弹的射高可达上千千米,理论上讲对付低轨卫星绰绰有余。而且,由于卫星是按照固定轨迹飞行,又缺乏规避和防御措施,打卫星比打导弹会更容易一些。”王群说,“事实上,美国‘宙斯盾’系统就不但能反导,而且能反卫,这也是美国更看好它的一个重要原因。早在2008年2月,美国就利用它击落了其一颗高度247千米的失控卫星。从性能上看,GMD的反卫能力应该更强。此次拦截试验成功后,不排除美国未来将对它进行反卫试验,让它实际上也具备反卫能力。”  虽打破战略平衡,但距离实战还很远  2016年我国首次公开了2010年、2013年两次反导试验的视频录像。2010年进行的试验是我国第一次陆基中段反导拦截技术试验,此举使中国成为当今世界除美国之外唯一掌握中段反导动能拦截技术的国家。  有专家分析,我国中段反导系统研究与应用当前尚处于起步阶段,基本只能进行技术验证试验。比如,中国还缺乏天基预警系统,反导试验时不得不用地基雷达模拟预警卫星获取导弹发射信号,体系方面缺项,无法进行实战模拟试验。  王群介绍,此次试验中,美国利用天基预警系统在洲际弹道导弹发射的瞬间就获得情报,这时受地球曲率限制,海基和陆基预警系统还不能发现来袭导弹。随后,天基预警系统将信息传递给预警和跟踪雷达,持续地对来袭导弹探测和跟踪,同时跟踪雷达引导拦截弹到达交战区,释放“外大气层杀伤飞行器”实现对来袭导弹的拦截。  “这套系统美国现在已经比较齐全,但包括我国和俄罗斯等国还远远达不到美国的水平,因此肯定会有危机感。换句话说,此次试验进一步打破了目前的核威慑和战略平衡。”王群说。  但是,王群也特别指出:“这也没有必要过分担心其威胁。这些年GMD的拦截试验,实际上并不是‘背靠背’进行的,基本都事先知道时间、地点等信息,而且‘来袭’导弹上往往带有信标,引导拦截弹找到它,这有‘作假’嫌疑,离实战环境相去甚远。况且,它拦截的还仅仅是单弹头,对分导式多弹头或有先进突防掩护措施的弹头,能否拦截还是未知数。因此,此次试验的意义更多的是在政治上,以威慑诸如朝鲜和伊朗这样的国家,但对俄罗斯、中国来说却是另一回事,毕竟它们洲际导弹不但数量多,且技术先进,突防手段强,更重要的是它们对付反导系统的‘矛’日益锋利。”




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